Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

Intro

Barbara: Good evening!
Braden: Braden here. Place Your Adjectives Right for a Bright Future in English. In this lesson, you’ll learn about Adjective placement and The future of energy.
Barbara: This conversation takes place in the evening, on the phone.
Braden: And it’s between Sarah and Alexi Braddaouwscki.
Barbara: Sarah is inviting Alexi Braddaouwscki to participate formally in the seminar, so the language is professional.
Braden: Let’s listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Sarah: My name is Sarah Walker, I'm calling on behalf of the International Relations Department at the University of Indiana.
Alexi Braddaouwscki: Yes?
Sarah: We're looking for experts to come to an international seminar and in our research on engineers, your name came up several times. We were wondering if you would like to be one of our delegates.
Alexi Braddaouwscki: What is the seminar about?
Sarah: The theme of the seminar is Energy and our Future. So, it's a large, modern theme with plenty of space to express whatever information you deem necessary.
Alexi Braddaouwscki: When will it take place?
Sarah: The first week of March. The third through the fifth. You'd return home on the sixth.
Alexi Braddaouwscki: Is that the first full week of March?
Sarah: Yes, sir, it is.
Alexi Braddaouwscki: I apologize, but I already have an important previous engagement the first week of March.
Sarah: So you won't be able to participate?
Alexi Braddaouwscki: No, I will not.
Sarah: That's unfortunate. Since you won't be able to come, could I ask you a few quick questions?
Alexi Braddaouwscki: Sure. Fire away.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Braden: So, we wanted to talk a little bit about The future of energy.
Barbara: The three main categories of energy sources are – fossil fuels, renewables, and nuclear fission.
Braden: Energy development is a major occupation for engineers. Currently, most of the world's energy is harnessed through fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
Barbara: As access to these energy sources becomes more expensive, many alternative energies are being researched to supplement and in some cases replace energy from fossil fuels.
Braden: However, as engineers will often point out, there are many practical problems that also need to be sorted out. For example, in the United States, the power grid uses alternating current or AC.
Barbara: Most renewable energy sources produce direct current electricity or DC. A switch to one of these technologies would require replacing almost every wire, in every house, in every city in the entire country. Most developed countries would also need a similar restructuring.
Braden: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Vocabulary and Phrases
Braden: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
: The first word we shall see is:
Barbara: expert [natural native speed]
Braden: a person who has authoritative knowledge in a particular area
Barbara: expert [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: expert [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: research [natural native speed]
Braden: the systematic study of something
Barbara: research [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: research [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: wondering [natural native speed]
Braden: used to introduce a polite statement or request
Barbara: wondering [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: wondering [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: previous [natural native speed]
Braden: the one before
Barbara: previous [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: previous [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: engagement [natural native speed]
Braden: an arrangement to do something
Barbara: engagement [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: engagement [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: unfortunate [natural native speed]
Braden: not having the good fortune
Barbara: unfortunate [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: unfortunate [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: modern [natural native speed]
Braden: of or relating to the present or recent past
Barbara: modern [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: modern [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: deem [natural native speed]
Braden: regard or consider in a specified way
Barbara: deem [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: deem [natural native speed]
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Braden: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Barbara: In the dialogue, we heard phrases that demonstrated Asking for Verification.
Braden: For example, Sarah asked, “So you won’t be able to participate?”
Barbara: This phrase is asking for verification or confirmation of understanding.
Braden: When you ask for verification, You usually use yes-no questions which are questions where expected answer is either a yes or a no. Notice how the stresses placed on the “won't.” In questions about verification, the stress is always placed on the information you want to verify.
Barbara: For example "You did say next week didn't you?” The (did) is stressed.
Braden: Or from the dialogue, “Is that the first full week in March?” Our next phrase is fire away. We point out this phrase because of the context. The phone call was formal, but this phrase is casual.
Barbara: These kinds of telephone calls are always warm because you do not know the person you're calling or the business they are about. For that reason, the majority of the phone call was formal.
Braden: However this phrase “fire away,” is quite casual. Alexi used this phrase because the official nature of the phone call had been taken care of.
Barbara: Sarah had called to invite him to the seminar, he would not be able to do that, and therefore there was no more reason (from his perspective) to maintain formality. Therefore he began to speak casually.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: fire away (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: fire away (fast)
Braden: Perfect! Let’s take a look at the grammar point.

Lesson focus

Barbara: The focus of this lesson is adjective placement in English
Braden: In the dialogue, we heard the phrase
Barbara: It’s a large, modern theme with plenty of space to express whatever information you deem necessary.
Braden: When using more than one adjective to describe a noun place the adjectives in the following order before the noun.
Barbara: Before we get started, we should point out that in English, we rarely use more than three adjectives preceding a noun. It happens, but it’s usually better to restructure your sentence.
Braden: The first adjectives are Opinion adjectives. For example, “an interesting book, a boring lecture.” A sample sentence would be, “A wonderful old Italian clock.”
Barbara: Here we have an opinion first, age seconds, and origin last.
Braden: Next in order is Dimension. For example,” “ a big apple,” or “a thin wallet." A sample sentence would be “A big square blue box.”
Barbara: Here the order is a dimension, then shape, then color.
Braden: Next in order is Age. For example, “a new car,” “a modern building,” or “an ancient ruin.” A sample sentence would be “A disgusting pink plastic ornament.”
Barbara: Here we have the order opinion, then color, then material.
Braden: Next in line is Shape. For example, “a square box,” “an oval mask,” or “a round ball.”
Barbara: An example sentence would be “Some slim new French socks.” Here the order is a dimension, then age, then origin.
Braden: Next we have Color. For example, “a pink hat,” “a blue book,” or “a black coat.”
Barbara: An example sentence would be “The Doctor traveled in a blue wooden box.” Here the order is color then material.
Braden: Next in order we have Origin. For example,” “some Italian shoes,” “a Canadian town,” “an American car.”
Barbara: It’s hard to find examples of origin at the beginning because we are at the end of the list. But an example would be something like “El Cid is an interesting old Spanish novel.”
Braden: The order here is opinion, then age, then origin.
Barbara: Last we have Material. For example, “a wooden box,” “a woolen sweater,” or “a plastic toy.”
Braden: An example sentence would be “It was so cold the man wore a large black woolen suit.” Here the order is a dimension, then color, then material.
Barbara: To finish things off, we’re going to give you nouns that have three adjectives in the correct order before the noun. Post in the comments the category each adjective belongs.
Braden: First we have “a pretty old square picture frame.”
Barbara: Next we have, “An interesting modern Brazilian opinion.”
Braden: And last is, “A nasty green, red apple.”
Barbara: There’s a trick in that one!
Braden: Post the order in the comments and we’ll get a good discussion going on for this one. Ok?
Barbara: Alright!

Outro

Braden: That just about does it for today.
Barbara: Thanks for being with us.
Braden: Thanks for listening!
Barbara: Bye-bye!

37 Comments

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EnglishClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 06:30 PM
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Hello EnglishClass101.com listeners! Have you ever been turned down over the phone?

Natasa
Tuesday at 01:50 AM
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Hi team,

I have one question regarding adjective placement in English. There are some differences between American and British grammar. According to British grammar, the shape comes before age, but here is the order different. Could you please explain why is that so?

Best wishes

Natasa

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Wednesday at 04:04 PM
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Hello Richard,


Thanks very much for your thoughts and feedback. 🙏🏽


We appreciate you taking the time to give it to us.


If you ever have any questions regarding your studies, please let me know.


Sincerely,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com 

Richard
Tuesday at 05:29 PM
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"I'm calling in behalf of the International Relations Department at the University of Indiana." This sentence sounds a little strange to me. Until now I thought the correct form is: "on behalf of..." Your explanation will be greatly appreciated. Richard

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Sunday at 09:19 PM
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Hello Hiroshi,


Thanks for getting in touch! 😄👍


Yes, "fire away" is a casual expression. I wouldn't say it would be used in that particular situation, it would be too casual to say before a presentation. "Fire away" is defined as 'being used to give someone permission to begin speaking, typically to ask questions.'


An example may be, "Can I ask you something about what happened the other night?" - the response may be "Sure, fire away" (meaning "Sure, I'm happy for you to ask me your question.")


I hope this is helpful to you. 😄👍


Sincerely,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com

Hiroshi
Saturday at 01:38 PM
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Hi teacher,


I'm very interested in phrase 'fire away. Is this casual expression?

In the case that I am about to start presentation, and the audiences can say 'fire away'?

Please teach me more example use of 'fire away'.


Best regards.

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 04:01 PM
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Hello Christian,


We have plenty of lessons that focus on English grammar. ❤️️❤️️❤️️


Please just type 'grammar' in to the lesson search bar on our site.


Please feel free to ask us any questions you have here or direct to your teacher in the ‘MyTeacher’ feature.


Cheers,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com

Christian
Thursday at 12:20 PM
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Are there any exercises to practice grammar?

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Wednesday at 09:03 AM
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Hi there António,


Thanks for taking the time to post and share. 👍


Please feel free to ask us any questions you have throughout your studies.


Sincerely,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com

António Piçarra
Tuesday at 05:58 PM
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The last one is: A nasty green red apple (with no comma).

Antonio P.

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Wednesday at 06:12 PM
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Hello Juana,


Excellent news! We're pleased to be helping you along your journey to speaking fluent English.


We are constantly updating the lessons on our site so please stay tuned! 👍


Feel free to ask us any questions that come up.


Take it easy,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com