Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

Intro

Barbara: Good morning!
Braden: Braden here. Looking to the Future in the US. In this lesson, you’ll learn about paired conjunctions and Looking to the future.
Barbara: This conversation takes place in the morning a week after the seminar, at a meeting.
Braden: And it’s between The chairman and Sarah.
Barbara: Sarah is the chairman’s aid, so she feels less hesitant to answer the chairman’s questions.
Braden: Let’s listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Chairman: Before we close the meeting I just wanted to reiterate that the seminar was a great success.
Sarah: The delegates were both impressed and grateful for the opportunity to participate.
Chairman: What have we learned from this seminar that we can apply to next year's?
Sarah: Well, I noticed that both the keynote speech and the Robert Forester speech had a large public turnout. I think we should build on that. Don't you?
Chairman: How so?
Sarah: Well, both of those speeches were in the evening when people have more free time. Not only could we extend the seminar to a full week but only also have speeches and panels and workshops after 5 p.m. That way even more people could attend.
Chairman: Great idea Sarah. Do you have any ideas on the theme for next year's seminar?
Sarah: I was thinking either a Middle East-focused seminar or something focused on the economic growth of South America.
Chairman: That's interesting, I hadn't thought of that before. Jonathan, what do you think?
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Braden: So, we wanted to talk a little bit about Looking to the future
Barbara: A key aspect of American business practices is constant futurist planning. By the time a company launches a product, they have already planned out their next product.
Braden: For example, while the details of the internal workings of each company are confidential, it is very easy to suppose that Apple already has plans for an iPhone 6 before it has launched the iPhone 5.
Barbara: Most successful businesses have at least a five-year plan for every facet of their company.
Braden: Those plans, however, are not set in stone. For example in the dialogue, it had already previously been agreed to have another seminar next year.
Barbara: The purposes and general structure of the future seminar will be the same as the current seminar. Notice how the chairman asks, “What have we learned from this seminar that we can apply to next year’s?”
Braden: Even though many of the decisions for next year have already been taken, not everything has been agreed upon.
Barbara: Flexibility is a key aspect of American business. The ability to adapt to circumstances rapidly often determines how long a business will remain profitable.
Braden: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Vocabulary and Phrases
Braden: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
: The first word we shall see is:
Barbara: reiterate [natural native speed]
Braden: say something again
Barbara: reiterate [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: reiterate [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: success [natural native speed]
Braden: an accomplishment achieved on purpose
Barbara: success [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: success [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: impressed [natural native speed]
Braden: to cause admiration or respect
Barbara: impressed [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: impressed [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: opportunity [natural native speed]
Braden: a chance; a set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something
Barbara: opportunity [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: opportunity [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: apply [natural native speed]
Braden: make a formal application
Barbara: apply [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: apply [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: turnout [natural native speed]
Braden: the number of people attending or taking part in an event
Barbara: turnout [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: turnout [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: build [natural native speed]
Braden: construct by putting material together
Barbara: build [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: build [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: evening [natural native speed]
Braden: the last part of the day and early part of the night
Barbara: evening [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: evening [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: extend [natural native speed]
Braden: cause to cover a larger area
Barbara: extend [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: extend [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: attend [natural native speed]
Braden: to be present at something
Barbara: attend [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: attend [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: themed [natural native speed]
Braden: designed around a central idea or motif
Barbara: themed [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: themed [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: focused [natural native speed]
Braden: directing a great deal of attention towards
Barbara: focused [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: focused [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: economic [natural native speed]
Braden: of or relating to economics or the economy
Barbara: economic [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: economic [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: growth [natural native speed]
Braden: the process of growing, improving, or developing in size or state
Barbara: growth [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: growth [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: interesting [natural native speed]
Braden: attracting attention
Barbara: interesting [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: interesting [natural native speed]
: Next:
Barbara: interest [natural native speed]
Braden: to cause curiosity or attention in someone
Barbara: interest [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: interest [natural native speed]
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Braden: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Barbara: In the dialogue, we heard the word Before we close today's meeting,...
Braden: This is one phrase a chairperson can use to introduce a final topic of discussion or to share some last bit of information.
Barbara: For example, we’re able to determine by this phrase that the meeting is almost over, that the committee has already discussed the agenda, and that the chairman has an extra bit of information that was probably not on the agenda.
Braden: That’s right. If what he was about to say was on the agenda, he’d probably say, “The last item on our agenda is...” or something similar.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: Before we close today's meeting,... (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: Before we close today's meeting,... (fast)
Braden: Our next phrase is That's interesting.
Braden: This phrase is an example of what is sometimes called non-committal commenting.
Barbara: These kinds of phrases are used when it is socially necessary that your comment but for some reason, you don’t want to agree or disagree.
Braden: In the dialogue, the chairman opens up the discussion to topics for next year’s seminar. However, he doesn’t want to influence the committee members by agreeing with any particular idea.
Barbara: That would be unfair because of the position he holds. As the leader, his opinion strongly influences the group and if he supports a particular idea, it’s probable that many committee members will agree with that idea just because he did.
Braden: Or at very least, not propose their own ideas because they think the choice has already been made.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: That's interesting (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: That's interesting (fast)
Braden: Let’s take a look at the grammar point.

Lesson focus

Barbara: The focus of this lesson is Paired conjunctions
Braden: In the dialogue, we heard the phrase
Barbara: I noticed that both the keynote speech and the Robert Forester speech had a large public turnout.
Braden: Paired conjunctions are often used in both spoken and written English to make a point, give an explanation, or discuss alternatives.
Barbara: Unfortunately, not only are they difficult to use, but their structure is also rather strict!
Braden: There are four paired conjunctions we're going to look at in this lesson. We'll tell you the paired conjunction and then give you two sample sentences using that conjunction
Barbara: First, we have the paired conjunction both...and. Use this when you're connecting two ideas in a sentence.
Braden: For example, “The delegates were both impressed and grateful for the opportunity to participate.”
Barbara: Another example would be, “Students who do well not only study hard but also use their instincts if they do not know the answer.”
Braden: The main difference between using both...and instead of both or and is because of emphasis. The paired conjunction connects the ideas well.
Barbara: Second, we have the paired conjunction not only...but (also)
Braden: "Not only...but also" is used for emphasis in the same way that "both...and" is. For that reason, they are often interchangeable grammatically.
Barbara: For example, “Not only could we extend the seminar to a full week but also have speeches and panels and workshops after 5 PM.”
Braden: In many situations, the phrase "not only" is synonymous with "not just" and they can be exchanged at any time. However, in paired conjunction, using "not just" is awkward.
Barbara: For example, “Not only do we want to go, but we have enough money.”
Braden: Third, we have the paired conjunction either...or.
You use "either..or" when you want to specify two options instead of just identifying two options.
Barbara: If you just used "or," there would be a possibility for other options. With "either...or" there are only the options listed.
Braden: For example, “Either Dustin will have to work more hours, or we will have to hire somebody new.”
Barbara: Another example would be, “He's either from Idaho or Nevada.”
Braden: Fourth, and last, we have the paired conjunction neither...nor.
Barbara: For example, “I'm neither a liberal nor a conservative nor a democrat nor a republican. I'm independent.”
Braden: Another example would be, “That story was neither true nor realistic.”

Outro

Braden: That just about does it for today.
Barbara: Thanks for being with us!
Braden: Bye-bye!
Barbara: Bye!

7 Comments

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EnglishClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 06:30 PM
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After listening to this lesson, it seem that either you understand paired conjunctions or you don't. Am I right? We'll find out in Advanced series season 2!

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 12:23 PM
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Hi there Rein,


That is still progress Rein. You're doing a great job!


Keep up the good work!


Kindly,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com

rEIN
Tuesday at 02:57 PM
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I feel like I'm able to understand everything that is said in these conversations but I cannot speak at that level yet

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Monday at 09:59 AM
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Hello Lorna,


That's wonderful to hear! We have enjoyed having you as a student. 😄


Thanks for sharing how your experience is going with our other students, I'm sure it's nice for others to learn and relate to how others go with their studies.


Please feel free to shoot through any questions you have throughout your studies.


Sincerely,

Éva

Team EnglishClass101.com

Lorna
Friday at 08:26 PM
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Hi 101 team


I am both grateful and impressed for having reached the final of season 1.

This season Not only would it take me to a higher English comprehension level; but also have more interesting and formal conversations.

Either I study just few minutes some days or a whole hour in other ones, I think I am brushing up on my English.

Studying with you guys is neither boring nor monotonous.

I really appreciate your patience.

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:42 PM
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Hi Ammar,


Thanks for your kind comment and let us know if you have any questions.


Sincerely,


Khanh

Team EnglishClass101.com

Ammar
Sunday at 11:01 PM
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A very useful lesson which is included paired conjunction either ... or and neither ... nor.

thank you a lot.