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Lesson Transcript

Braden: In this lesson, you’ll learn about Adverb clauses to express conditions and cause-and-effect and Salary Negotiation.
Barbara: This conversation takes place in front of Big John’s office.
Braden: And it’s between June and Big John.
Barbara: Big John is the Manager of the store and June is an employee. Therefore June is speaking professionally and Big John is semi-professionally.
Braden: Let’s listen to the conversation.
June: Sir, I was wondering whether we could meet and talk about how to increase my contribution here at Big Buys and the reward I receive.
Big John: Well, June, we usually don't do salary reviews unless it's the end of the year.
June: I know, sir, but I'd appreciate talking to you about this soon.
Big John: Any particular reason for the urgency?
June: It's mostly due to the fact that I have a number of ideas I need to go over with you. And it's due to the fact that since Sarah came in and I got demoted, things have been pretty confusing lately.
Big John: I don't have very much time, June. Couldn't you just write me an e-mail?
June: I'd prefer talking to you in person, sir. And don't worry, I'll be quick.
Big John: Okay then. As long as you're quick. Talk to my secretary and she'll pencil you in.
June: You don't have a secretary, sir.
Big John: Of course I do! Her name is Susan.
June: Sir, when you mentioned her last time, I looked in the store employee database and I couldn't find any record of a "Susan."
Big John: It's that lady right over there. The one with the green hair.
June: That's Alana, sir.
Braden: So, we wanted to talk a little bit about Salary Negotiation
Barbara: There are several factors that can affect salary negotiation.
Braden: First is how well paid you are at the moment compared to the market norms. If you're already making more than others with your same workload and responsibility, your chances of a pay raise are small.
Barbara: The second factor is the rate of inflation. The inflation rate is usually taken into account when calculating a pay raise. For example, many teachers have a yearly pay raise equivalent to the inflation rate written into their contracts.
Braden: A third factor that can affect salary negotiation is where you live and work and the costs of living associated with the area. A high school teacher living in North Dakota will probably never make as much as a high school teacher living in southern California.
Barbara: Many other factors can affect your negotiations. It is wise to do serious research before you set an appointment with your boss for a salary review.
Braden: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word we shall see is:
Barbara: contribution [natural native speed]
Braden: a gift or payment to a common fund or collection
Barbara: contribution [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: contribution [natural native speed]
reward [natural native speed]
Braden: gift given to someone in recognition of their services
reward [slowly - broken down by syllable] reward [natural native speed]
Barbara: increase [natural native speed]
Braden: make greater in size, amount, intensity, or degree
Barbara: increase [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: increase [natural native speed]
prefer [natural native speed]
Braden: like something better than another
prefer [slowly - broken down by syllable] prefer [natural native speed]
Barbara: appreciate [natural native speed]
Braden: recognize the full worth of
Barbara: appreciate [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: appreciate [natural native speed]
quick [natural native speed]
Braden: moving fast or doing something in a short time
quick [slowly - broken down by syllable] quick [natural native speed]
Braden: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Barbara: In the dialogue, we heard the phrase "Pencil you in."
Braden: “pencil you in” is a very business phrase. the idea here refers to an agenda and writing somebody’s name in to that agenda to remember that you have a previous commitment. Please, do not use this phrase Unless you actually have a personal secretary. It sounds ridiculous if you need to pencil someone in yourself.
Barbara: For that matter, it also sounds strange to say pencil you in if you don't actually use a pencil. For example, if you principally use software for you scheduling, you won't even "pencil" anything in.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: Pencil you in (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: Pencil you in (fast)
Braden: Perfect! What’s next?
Barbara: Our next phrase is "salary review."
Braden: A salary review is a meeting with your immediate superior with the intent of reviewing your salary. Pretty self-explanatory. That said, prepare yourself well for said salary review.
Barbara: Some companies hold routine salary reviews, either every six months, every year, or every two years. requesting a salary review outside of the scheduled routine can often backfire as sometimes employers may see that your value the company has diminished and therefore decrease your pay.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: salary review (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: salary review (fast)
Braden: Excellent!

Lesson focus

Braden: Let’s take a look at the grammar point.
Braden: Barbara, what’s the focus of this lesson?
Barbara: The focus of this lesson is adverb clauses to express conditions and cause and effect, Part 2
Braden: In the dialogue, we heard the phrase...
Barbara: As long as you’re quick.
Braden: To start things off, we’re going to look at the word As.
Barbara: These types of clauses are often called "if clauses" in English grammar books and follow conditional sentence patterns. First, a quick rule about punctuation.
Braden: When an adverb clause begins the sentence, use a comma to separate the two clauses.
Barbara: For example, “If she comes(comma) we will have
6some dinner. “
Braden: When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no need for a comma.
Barbara: For example, “She would have invited me if she had known.”
Braden: So, back to “as.” "As" means the same as "because," but it is preferred to "because" when the adverb clause begins the sentence. "As" tends to be used in more formal, written English.
Barbara: For example, “As the exam will be difficult, you had better get some sleep.”
Braden: Next we have As long as. "As long as" means the same as "because," but again is preferred for starting sentences. "As long as" tends to be used in more informal spoken English.
Barbara: For example, “As long as you have the time, why don't you come for a chat?”
Braden: Next we’ll look at “because.” "Because" can be used with a variety of tenses based on the time relationship between the two clauses.
Barbara: For example, “I'm studying hard because I want to pass my exam.” and “He works a lot of overtime because his rent is so expensive”
Braden: These type of clauses explain the reasons for what happens in the main clause. For example, “He bought a new home because he got a better job.”
Barbara: Next we’ll look at Due to the fact that. "Due to the fact that" means the same as because. "Due to the fact that" is generally used in very formal, written English.
Braden: For example, “We will be staying for an extra week due to the fact that we haven't yet finished remodeling your house.”
Barbara: Next we have Even if. Sentences with "even if" show a result that is unexpected based on the condition in the "even if" clause.
Braden: For example, “Even if she saves a lot, she won't be able to afford that house.”
Barbara: COMPARE that to “If she studies hard, she will pass the exam.” AND “Even if she studies hard, she won't pass the exam.”
Braden: Next, let’s look at “if”. In contrast to sentences with "even if," "if" clauses express the conditions necessary for the result. "If" clauses are followed by expected results based on the condition.
Barbara: For example, “If we win, we'll go to Alex's to celebrate!”
Braden: Let’s finnish things off looking at “Inasmuch as.” "Inasmuch as" means the same as because. "Inasmuch as" is used in very formal, written English.
Barbara: For example, “Inasmuch as the students had successfully completed their exams, their parents rewarded their efforts by giving them a trip to Paris.”
Braden: Just a note, the word “inasmuch” has a strong “Bible” feel. I can’t think of any situation where using “inasmuch” would be natural outside of religious contexts.


Braden: That just about does it for today. Thanks for listening.
Barbara: See you later!