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Lesson Transcript

Braden: Is Romance Blooming in this American Office?
Braden: In this lesson, you’ll learn about Review of inversions and Free time.
Barbara: This conversation takes place behind the customer service desk after the interview with Big John.
Braden: And it’s between Cody and June.
Barbara: The speakers are now good friends so they’ll be speaking casually.
Braden: Let’s listen to the conversation.
Cody: June, are you okay?
June: I just had a vision of what the rest of my life is going to be like, and only now do I realize that it takes place in the same outfit, behind the same desk, at the same store.
Cody: Wow! Never have I seen you so depressed. Is Big John: on your back again?
June: No it's just...I just thought I'd be going somewhere. Not just getting a promotion but physically, getting out of this town. To...to...
Cody: The suburbs.
June: Ha ha!
Cody: All right, listen. Look at me. Scarcely had I met you when I became of the mind that you are destined for great things. Okay? Whatever you want to do, you just go ahead and do it. You understand?
June: Thanks, Cody. That was almost poetic of you.
Cody: Anytime.
June: Why are you smiling?
Cody: Just wondering whether you have some free time this weekend.
June: Cody, you have a girlfriend, remember?
Cody: Not anymore.
June: Oh!
Braden: So, we wanted to talk a little bit about Free time.
Barbara: In an academic sense, free time and leisure are merely synonyms. To the average American, at least to the Americans we know, free time is a period of time that has not been appropriated to a specific task.
Braden: In other words what you will be doing during your “free time” has not been determined yet.
Barbara: A lively discussion was once started in an economics class about the notion of free time” and whether not time was really "free.”
Braden: The economics professor insisted that nothing was "free” and that all people's time was traded them for a commodity called leisure. The class disagreed with the economics professor.
Barbara: In the dialogue when Cody asked June, “Just wondering if you have some free time this weekend.” He was asking, indirectly, if she were willing to spend some of that free time with him.
Braden: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word we shall see is:
Barbara: desk [natural native speed]
Braden: a table-like piece of furniture usually with drawers
Barbara: desk [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: desk [natural native speed]
realize [natural native speed]
Braden: become fully aware of something
realize [slowly - broken down by syllable] realize [natural native speed]
Barbara: depressed [natural native speed]
Braden: to be in a state of general unhappiness
Barbara: depressed [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: depressed [natural native speed]
promotion [natural native speed]
Braden: the action of raising someone to a higher position or rank or the fact of being so raised
promotion [slowly - broken down by syllable] promotion [natural native speed]
Barbara: somewhere [natural native speed]
Braden: some unspecified place
Barbara: somewhere [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: somewhere [natural native speed]
physically [natural native speed]
Braden: of or relating to the body
physically [slowly - broken down by syllable] physically [natural native speed]
Barbara: suburbs [natural native speed]
Braden: the typically residential area of a city that lies beyond the city center
Barbara: suburbs [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: suburbs [natural native speed]
anytime [natural native speed]
Braden: at whatever time
anytime [slowly - broken down by syllable] anytime [natural native speed]
Barbara: scarcely [natural native speed]
Braden: almost not
Barbara: scarcely [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Barbara: scarcely [natural native speed]
wondering [natural native speed]
Braden: used to introduce a polite statement or request
wondering [slowly - broken down by syllable]
wondering [natural native speed]
Braden: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Barbara: In the dialogue, we heard the noun "deliverables."
Braden: “deliverables” Refers to the output that an individual or organization produces. By definition, a “deliverable” is generic. It could refer to a new product, specific improvements to a product, a service, a service improvement, a system modification or a number of other possibilities.
Barbara: it’s also business jargon. This is not a word you would use when talking about academic assignments or personal matters.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: deliverables (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: deliverables (fast)
Braden: Perfect! What’s next?
Barbara: Our next phrase is "destined for great things."
Braden: “Destiny” is not something that many Americans believe in anymore. However, this phrase “destined for great things” is still very common. In the dialogue, it was used as a compliment. This is an indirect way of saying “You are very talented.”
Barbara: or “You have a lot of potential.” Be careful how much you use this because it can be a bit cliche.
Braden: Could you break this down?
Barbara: destined for great things (slowly)
Braden: And one time fast?
Barbara: destined for great things (fast)
Braden: Excellent!

Lesson focus

Braden: Let’s take a look at the grammar point.
Braden: Barbara, what’s the focus of this, the last lesson in the series?
Barbara: The focus of this lesson is inversions
Braden: In the dialogue, we heard the phrase...
Barbara: Scarcely had I met you when I became of the mind that you are destined for great things.
Braden: The term inversion refers to an uncommon verb placement structure -
Barbara: To form an inversion, you must use the question Form, In this case, the question form (auxiliary + subject + main verb) takes the place of the standard positive sentence structure.
Braden: So, “He goes to work every day” would become “To work he goes everyday.”
Barbara: For those of you familiar with Star Wars, inversions are an integral part of Yoda speech.
Braden: Another example would be “Seldom has the boss been so upset!” instead of “The boss has seldom been so upset!”
Barbara: In this case, the question form is substituted for standard sentence structure in a statement. Generally, an inversion is used to stress the uniqueness of an event and begins with a negative.
Braden: Now let’s look at Negative Adverbials. These Negative adverbials can use several time expressions. Such as never, rarely, seldom.
Barbara: For example, “Never have I been more insulted.” and “Rarely has he seen anything stranger.”
Braden: Some other Time expressions – such as, hardly, barely, no sooner, or scarcely – are handled differently. These time expressions are used when a there are a succession of events in the past.
Barbara: For example, “Scarcely had I got out of bed when the doorbell rang.” and “No sooner had he finished dinner, when she walked in the door.”
Braden: There are also “only” expressions. 'Only' is used with time expressions such as 'only after', 'only when', 'only then', etc.
Barbara: For example, “Only then did I understand the problem.” and “Only after understanding the situation does the teacher make a comment.”
Braden: Now, let’s look at “little” being used in a negative sense. For example, “Little did he understand the situation.” and “Little have I read concerning nanotechnology.”
Barbara: Next we have Inversions after 'So', 'Such', and 'That.” Starting with “so” we get 'So + adjective ... that' combines with the verb 'to be'.
Braden: For example, “So strange was the situation that I couldn't sleep.” and “So difficult is the test that students need three months to prepare.”
Barbara: Such is handled very similarly. The structure is 'Such + to be + noun."
Braden: For example, “Such is the moment that all greats traverse.” and “Such is the stuff of dreams.”
Barbara: To finish things up, let’s look at inverted conditional forms. Sometimes conditional forms are inverted as a means of sounding more formal. In this case, the conditional 'if' is dropped and the inverted forms takes the place of the 'if clause'.
Braden: For example, “Had he understood the problem, he wouldn't have committed those mistakes.” and “Should he decide to come, please telephone.”


Braden: That just about does it for today. Thanks for listening.
Barbara: See you later!


Please to leave a comment.
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EnglishClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 06:30 PM
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Hello EnglishClass101.com listeners! This is the last lesson in the series? Did you like the finale? What would you like to see in our next season?

EnglishClass101.com Verified
Friday at 03:19 AM
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Hello Ahmed,

Thank you for posting some practice sentences for this lesson. Here are a few notes:

“Never have I had this grammar point anywhere.”>> Make sure your sentences start with a capitalized first word.

“So beautiful were the lesson and the finale.”>> This is technically correct, but most times, this structure is used to talk about only one subject, so it sounds a bit funny. :)

“Little did I understand the usage of “Such” + “to be” + noun … (that).”>> I have simplified the tense so it is in simple past, instead of past perfect. And, the first sentence that comes to mind about the tricky sentence structure you mention here is "Such is life." or, in the fullest form, "Such is life that we must forge ahead into the unknown." :)

Let us know if you have any questions.



Team EnglishClass101.com

Thursday at 08:03 AM
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"never have I had this grammar point anywhere." "so beautiful were the lesson and the finale." "little had I understood concerning the usage of "Such" + "to be" + noun ... (that)."

Englishclass101.com Verified
Monday at 01:32 AM
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Hello AungZW,

Thank you for posting.

Feel free to let us know if you have any questions.



Team Englishclass101.com

Saturday at 02:18 PM
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